Tag Archives: Guidelines

2020-2025 Dietary Guidelines

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has issued Dietary Guidelines every five years since 1980 to provide science-based advice on what to eat and drink to promote health, reduce the risk of chronic disease, and meet nutrient needs.

The 2020-2025 Dietary Guidelines provide four overarching Guidelines that encourage healthy eating patterns at each stage of life and recognize that individuals will need to make shifts in their food and beverage choices to achieve a healthy pattern. The Guidelines also explicitly emphasize that a healthy dietary pattern is not a rigid prescription. Rather, the Guidelines are a customizable framework of core elements within which individuals make tailored and affordable choices that meet their personal, cultural, and traditional preferences. Several examples of healthy dietary patterns that translate and integrate the recommendations in overall healthy ways to eat
are provided. The Guidelines are supported by Key Recommendations that provide further guidance on healthy eating across the lifespan.

Here’s how you can make every bite count:

1. Follow a healthy dietary pattern at every life stage

At every life stage—infancy, toddlerhood, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, pregnancy, lactation, and older adulthood—it is never too early or too late to eat healthfully.

  • For about the first 6 months of life, exclusively feed infants human milk. Continue to feed infants human milk through at least the first year of life, and longer if desired. Feed infants iron-fortified infant formula during the first year of life when human milk is unavailable. Provide infants with supplemental vitamin D beginning soon after birth.
  • At about 6 months, introduce infants to nutrient-dense complementary foods. Introduce infants to potentially allergenic foods along with other complementary foods. Encourage infants and toddlers to consume a variety of foods from all food groups. Include foods rich in iron and zinc, particularly for infants fed human milk.
  • From 12 months through older adulthood, follow a healthy dietary pattern across the lifespan to meet nutrient needs, help achieve a healthy body weight, and reduce the risk of chronic disease.

2. Customize and enjoy nutrient-dense food and beverage choices to reflect personal preferences, cultural traditions, and budgetary considerations.

A healthy dietary pattern can benefit all individuals regardless of age, race, or ethnicity, or current health status. The Dietary Guidelines provides a framework intended to be customized to individual needs and preferences, as well as the foodways of the diverse cultures in the United States.

3. Focus on meeting food group needs with nutrient-dense foods and beverages, and stay within calorie limits.

An underlying premise of the Dietary Guidelines is that nutritional needs should be met primarily from foods and beverages—specifically, nutrient-dense foods and beverages. Nutrient-dense foods provide vitamins, minerals, and other health-promoting components and have no or little added sugars, saturated fat, and sodium. A healthy dietary pattern consists of nutrient-dense forms of foods and beverages across all food groups, in recommended amounts, and within calorie limits.

The core elements that make up a healthy dietary pattern include:

  • Vegetables of all types—dark green; red and orange; beans, peas, and lentils; starchy; and
    other vegetables
  • Fruits, especially whole fruit
  • Grains, at least half of which are whole grain
  • Dairy, including fat-free or low-fat milk, yogurt, and cheese, and/or lactose-free versions and fortified soy beverages and yogurt as alternatives
  • Protein foods, including lean meats, poultry, and eggs; seafood; beans, peas, and lentils; and nuts, seeds, and soy products
  • Oils, including vegetable oils and oils in food, such as seafood and nuts

4. Limit foods and beverages higher in added sugars, saturated fat, and sodium, and limit alcoholic beverages.

At every life stage, meeting food group recommendations—even with nutrient-dense choices—requires most of a person’s daily calorie needs and sodium limits. A healthy dietary pattern doesn’t have much room for extra added sugars, saturated fat, or sodium—or for alcoholic beverages. A small amount of added sugars, saturated fat, or sodium can be added to nutrient-dense foods and beverages to help meet food group recommendations, but foods and beverages high in these components should be limited. Limits are:

  • Added sugars—Less than 10 percent of calories per day starting at age 2. Avoid foods and beverages with added sugars for those younger than age 2.
  • Saturated fat—Less than 10 percent of calories per day starting at age 2.
  • Sodium—Less than 2,300 milligrams per day—and even less for children younger than age 14.
  • Alcoholic beverages—Adults of legal drinking age can choose not to drink, or to drink in moderation by limiting intake to 2 drinks or less in a day for men and 1 drink or less in a day for women, when alcohol is consumed. Drinking less is better for health than drinking more. There are some adults who should not drink alcohol, such as women who are pregnant.

2020-2025 Dietary Guidelines Executive Summary (PDF)

For more information: DietaryGuidelines.gov

Move Your Way® South Dakota Playbook

South Dakotans need to move more! Regular physical activity can prevent and treat chronic disease, improve mental health, and enhance quality of life. There are many benefits to physical activity. And yet, many South Dakotans aren’t meeting the recommended amounts of physical activity.

Our Playbook is based on the federal Move Your Way® Community Playbook. It has been adapted specifically for South Dakota. The Move Your Way® Campaign is designed to help implement the second edition of the Physical Activity Guidelines. Community leaders, health and wellness advocates, and parents—anyone who wants to help increase awareness of the benefits of physical activity can use this Playbook to coach your community.

What’s in the Playbook PDF

Why more physical activity is important

In South Dakota, only 46% of adults met the Physical Activity Guidelines for aerobic physical activity. And only 35% met the muscle strengthening guideline—so there is a lot of room for improvement!

The good news is that any amount of physical activity has health benefits! We used to
think people had to exercise for long periods of time all at once or in certain settings with
special equipment. Now we know that our movement can accumulate throughout the
day and still be beneficial. Anything that gets your heart pumping counts—housework,
dancing, gardening, taking the stairs, walking to school or work—it all adds up.
Even 5 minutes of physical activity has real health benefits!

This Playbook takes a community-level approach to promote, support, and encourage physical activity. Move Your Way® helps reframe the conversation and reminds us that physical activity can be achieved in many settings. Together we can promote messages that all sorts of physical activity counts!

What are the physical activity guidelines?

The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans are issued by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). They provide science-based guidance to help people improve their health. Participating in regular physical activity is an easy way to start!

Here’s a quick reference for activity recommendations for adults, and youth ages 6 to 17:

Move Your Way®—Your coaching strategy

Are you a South Dakota community leader? A health/wellness champion? Or super volunteer? Our Playbook can help you encourage more physical activity in your community. Use our messaging, strategies, and activity suggestions to get started!

Pre-game pep talk—pump up your partners!

Communities should strive to create equal access to places and spaces. Neighborhoods and main streets should be designed with activity-friendly routes to everyday destinations. These strategies increase opportunities for more physical activity.

Learn how to promote physical activity in a way that is informational and engaging. Use our talking points and sample pitch language to help you prepare.

Move Your Way®—help everyone get moving!

All individuals benefit from regular physical activity. Even those who live with a chronic disease or a physical disability.

  • People with chronic disease
  • Pregnant and postpartum women
  • Older adults
  • People with certain medical conditions or inactivity complicated by COIVD-19
  • Those living in rural communities

View our guide to making physical activity accessible to everyone. We have included resources and information on how to motivate South Dakotans to move more including handy references like these fact sheets:


Strategies for overcoming barriers

There are often barriers that get in the way of physical activity. Some common barriers in South Dakota include:

  • Lack of Safe Places to Walk
  • Lack of Transportation to Parks, Spaces, Recreation
  • Lack of Financial Resources

Learn how to identify barriers and brainstorm solutions. Our Playbook also features success stories to help you find inspiration.

Game plan for the Playbook!

All good plans need to start with goals, objectives, and strategies. Be specific about the priority audiences you want to focus on. This will help you tailor your plan for success. Use our strategies for planning, implementing, and evaluating community-wide physical activity efforts. Here’s what’s included:

  • How to promote Move Your Way® in your community
  • Tips for motivating SD parents, early childhood and child care professionals
  • Strategies for engaging schools and youth-centered organizations
  • Ideas for partnering with youth sports organizations
  • How to promote Move Your Way® in SD worksites
  • How to reach SD healthcare providers
  • Ways to partner with SD Tribal communities
  • How to kick off and put your plan into place
  • How to evaluate and share your success

Enlisting funders for the win

Be prepared. Share how funds will be used and the benefits partners and volunteers will receive. Getting support is critical to your plan’s success. Our guide can help you put your plan into action.

  • Get tips on how to find funding and volunteers
  • View sample recruitment resources
  • Learn how to develop a campaign budget

End game

The key to success is to take small steps, keep trying, engage partners, and share progress. Use our tools, videos, and materials to help make it easier to get South Dakotans a little more active.

Sources, reference, and resources

Referencing evidence-based sources and information is critical. Check our our list of top resources in the Playbook can help you get your community moving!

Explore More from Move Your Way®

Move Your Way® for Parents
Make Sure Kids stay active with age-appropriate physical activities.

Move Your Way® During and After Pregnancy
Learn the benefits of physical activity during and after pregnancy.

Move Your Way® for Parents

Making sure kids stay active with age-appropriate, enjoyable physical activities can be challenging. How much do they need? Are they getting the right type of exercise? And perhaps most importantly, how can you keep them motivated? If you are looking for answers to these questions, you’ve come to the right place!

How much activity do they need?

The amount of physical activity children need depends on their age. Children ages 3 through 5 years need to be active throughout the day. Children and adolescents ages 6 through 17 need to be active for 60 minutes every day.

This may sound like a lot, but don’t worry! Your kids may already be meeting the recommended physical activity levels because lots of activities count. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends following the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans for growth and development.

Children ages 3–5 years

Younger kids love to be active naturally. Aim to keep them physically active throughout the day—a good goal is 3 hours of moving. Consider encouraging activities such as:

  • Games like Duck, Duck, Goose or Follow the Leader
  • Animal walk (name an animal and move like they do!)
  • Freeze tag
  • Dancing
  • Kicking a ball back and forth or into a goal
  • Running, jumping, or throwing
  • Hopscotch
  • Bean bag toss

Kids and teens ages 6–17 years

Older kids need 60 minutes or more of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity each day.

Most of the 60 minutes can be moderate-intensity aerobic activity. Anything that gets their heart beating faster counts. This can include activities like:

  • Walking
  • Hiking
  • Biking
  • Dancing
  • Swimming
  • Playing games that involve catching and throwing
  • Yard work

At least 3 days a week kids and teens should step it up to vigorous-intensity aerobic activity, so they’re breathing fast and their heart is pounding.

As part of their 60 minutes, kids also need:

Muscle-strengthening activities are things that make their muscles work harder like:

  • Climbing
  • Yoga
  • Doing push-ups
  • Swinging on the monkey bars
  • Rope or tree climbing
  • Resistance exercises using body weight or resistance bands

Bone-strengthening activities are important because bones need pressure to get stronger. This includes activities such as:

  • Jumping
  • Running
  • Mountain biking
  • Martial arts
  • Skiing
  • Team sports such as soccer, basketball, volleyball, or tennis

Take the talk test

A good rule of thumb to help you know if an activity is moderate or vigorous is to use the “talk test.” When your child is being active, ask them to talk to you:

  • If they are breathing hard but can still have a conversation easily, it’s moderate-intensity activity
  • If they can only saw a few words before having to take a breath, it’s vigorous-intensity activity

What are the benefits of being active?

Physical activity has many health benefits for children and teens. It can improve thinking and cognition, reduce the risk of disease, strengthen bones and muscles, and improve their ability to do everyday activities.

Regular physical activity also creates lifelong habits that can greatly improve overall health as kids grow older. But did you know it can make them feel better right away? That’s right! A little physical activity can:

  • Help kids sleep better
  • Boost mood
  • Even help them get better grades

How can I keep them motivated?

There are many ways to help encourage kids to stay active. Be positive about all kinds of physical activity and make it easy for them to get involved. Remember: whatever keeps them moving counts!

Here are a few ideas and some tips to consider:

  • Choose activities that are developmentally appropriate. If an activity feels too hard or scary, they may not want to try it again.
  • Plan ahead and dress them appropriately. If it’s hot, make sure they have water. If it’s cold, grab a hat and gloves. Gonna take a while? Bring a healthy snack.
  • Expose them to lots of activities, games, and sports, and ask them to tell you the things they like most about each.
  • Provide active toys (balls, jump ropes, etc.) for younger kids
  • Sign them up for free or low-cost sports or classes.
  • Get the right gear or equipment for older kids.
  • Set limits. Limit screen time on TV, devices, and computers.
  • Make time for exercise. Homework, music lessons, and other planned activities are important but make sure kids have time for play and exercise too.
  • Don’t overdo it. Exercise and physical activity should not hurt. If it becomes painful, your child should slow down or try a less vigorous activity.

What Can I Do to Encourage Physical Activity?

Parents and caregivers play a key role in helping their child be more physically active. Remember:

  • Focus on having fun. Help them find the activities they enjoy most. Talk about it. Get involved. It can be a great way for the whole family to spend time together.
  • Encourage active play with friends.
  • Give them rewards for active chores.
  • Play with your children. Help them learn a new sport or enjoy physical activity with them by going for a walk, hike, or bike ride.
  • Get active together. Make your morning walk a race, dance while dinner’s in the oven, show them your favorite ways to move.
  • Be a role model. When kids see adults being active, they are more likely to be active too!

What’s your move?

The Move Your Way® campaign can help parents and caregivers understand the amount and types of physical activity kids need to be healthy. The Move Your Way® materials include:

  • Fact Sheets and posters
  • An interactive tool
  • Videos
  • Stories about physical activity and healthy eating
  • Sample social media messages, graphics, and GIFs

These materials can be displayed or distributed in health care settings, recreation facilities, schools, workplaces, community centers, and more.

Download the fact sheets below for information about:

  • The kinds of activity kids and teens need to stay healthy
  • Tips for helping kids get active
  • Benefits kids and teens can get from playing sports

Explore More from Move Your Way®

Move Your Way® South Dakota Playbook
Find out how to promote, support, and encourage physical activity in your community

Move Your Way® During and After Pregnancy
Learn the benefits of physical activity during and after pregnancy.

Move Your Way® During and After Pregnancy

Physical activity has important health benefits during and after pregnancy. But lots of things can get in the way—like busy schedules and conflicting advice about what’s safe.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) moderate-intensity physical activity is safe for you during pregnancy if you are generally healthy. It can help reduce your risk of excessive weight gain and gestational diabetes and keep your heart and lungs healthy.

During the postpartum period (first year after delivery), physical activity can decrease symptoms of postpartum depression. When combined with caloric restrictions, it can also help you with weight loss after delivery.

How much activity do you need?

CDC recommends pregnant and postpartum women follow the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans and get at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity a week. Remember, some physical activity is better than none—so, do what you can. Here are a few ideas to consider:

  • Brisk walking
  • Some forms of yoga
  • Modified pilates
  • Water aerobics
  • Bike riding

What activities are okay?

Pregnancy comes with many physical and emotional changes. Give yourself room to explore and don’t worry if activities you used to do aren’t quite as easy or don’t feel the same. Start slow. Take time to warm up and cool down and be sure to drink lots of water.

Stop if you feel any discomfort or pain. Always talk with your healthcare provider if you have questions or concerns about how your body is responding to physical activity.

Remember, all kinds of physical movement count so find what works for you and if

  • Gardening
  • Dancing
  • Low-impact aerobics
  • Strength training
  • Ellipticals, stair climbers, treadmills, rowing, machines
  • Cross-country skiing, snowshoeing
  • Tai Chi
  • Stretching
  • Pelvic floor exercises
  • Breathwork

What activities should be avoided?

After the first trimester, try to avoid activities that require lying flat on your back. Instead, find ways to adapt your favorite physical activities—like propping yourself up with a

Be extra cautious if you are doing exercises where you could lose your balance. Avoid contact sports where there is a risk of being hit—like judo, kickboxing, or sports involving balls.

Don’t over-exercise. This can make you overheat and when pregnant that’s not good for baby. Aim to work hard enough so that you breathe more deeply and your heart beats faster, but not so hard that you can’t pass a talk test. You should be able to hold a conversation without gasping for breath.

Be mindful of activity in high altitudes or hot, humid climates—especially if you are not used to them.

What are the benefits?

We often hear about the long-term benefits of being active but physical activity can also help you feel better right away. Even if you didn’t exercise regularly before pregnancy, adding a little movement to your daily routine can have significant benefits.

Boost your mood

Sharpen your focus

Reduce your stress

Improve your sleep

For pregnant women, being active can even make labor shorter and recovery faster. Plus, it can make it less likely you’ll have complications like:

  • Gestational diabetes (a type of diabetes that happens during pregnancy)
  • Preeclampsia (a condition that causes high blood pressure and other problems)

Being active during after pregnancy can also:

  • Reduce backaches, constipation, bloating, and swelling
  • Improve posture
  • Prevent excess weight gain
  • Promote muscle tone, strength, and endurance
  • Help reduce postpartum depression

What’s your move?

The Move Your Way® campaign can help pregnant and postpartum women (and their support teams) understand the amount and types of physical activity they need during and after pregnancy. The Move Your Way® materials include:

  • Fact Sheets and posters
  • An interactive tool
  • Videos
  • Stories about physical activity and healthy eating
  • Sample social media messages, graphics, and GIFs

These materials can be displayed or distributed in health care settings, recreation facilities, workplaces, community centers, and more.

Download the fact sheets below for information about:

  • The benefits of regular physical activity during and after pregnancy
  • Tips to help people choose safe activities
  • Ideas on how to find time to get active
  • Questions for healthcare providers

Explore More from Move Your Way®

Move Your Way® South Dakota Playbook
Find out how to promote, support, and encourage physical activity in your community

Move Your Way® for Parents
Make Sure Kids stay active with age-appropriate physical activities.

Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, 2nd Edition

The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans report provides evidence-based recommendations for adults and youth ages 3 through 17 to safely get the physical activity they need to stay healthy.

The second edition, updated in 2018, offers new key guidelines for children ages 3 to 5 and new evidence that further demonstrates the health benefits of physical activity for individuals of all ages.

Guidelines for youth (3-5)

Preschool-aged children should be active throughout the day to enhance growth and development. Adults caring for children this age should encourage active play (light, moderate, or vigorous intensity) and aim for at least 3 hours per day.

Guidelines for Children and Adolescents

Children and adolescents ages 6 through 17 years should do 60 minutes (1 hour) or more of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity daily:

  • Aerobic: Most of the 60 minutes or more per day should be either moderate- or vigorous-intensity and should include vigorous-intensity physical activity on at least 3 days a week.
  • Muscle-strengthening: As part of their 60 minutes or more of daily physical activity, muscle-strengthening should be included at least 3 days a week.
  • Bone-strengthening: As part of their 60 minutes or more of daily physical activity, bone-strengthening physical activity should be included at least 3 days a week.

Guidelines for Adults

Adults should do at least 150 minutes (2 hours and 30 minutes) to 300 minutes (5 hours) a week of moderate-intensity, or 75 minutes (1 hour and 15 minutes) to 150 minutes (2 hours and 30 minutes) a week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic activity. Preferably, aerobic activity should be spread throughout the week.

Move more, sit less

New evidence shows a strong relationship between increased sedentary behavior and increased risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, and all-cause mortality. All physical activity, especially moderate-to-vigorous activity, can help offset these risks.

Any physical activity counts

Americans can benefit from small amounts of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity throughout the day. The first edition of the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans stated that only 10-minute bouts of physical activity counted toward meeting the guidelines. The second edition removes this requirement to encourage Americans to move more frequently throughout the day as they work toward meeting the guidelines.

Immediate health benefits

For example, physical activity can reduce anxiety and blood pressure and improve quality of sleep and insulin sensitivity.

Long-term health benefits

  • For youth, physical activity can help improve cognition, bone health, fitness, and heart health. It can also reduce the risk of depression.
  • For adults, physical activity helps prevent 8 types of cancer (bladder, breast, colon, endometrium, esophagus, kidney, stomach, and lung); reduces the risk of dementia (including Alzheimer’s disease), all-cause mortality, heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and depression; and improves bone health, physical function, and quality of life.
  • For older adults, physical activity also lowers the risk of falls and injuries from falls.
  • For pregnant women, physical activity reduces the risk of postpartum depression.
  • For all groups, physical activity reduces the risk of excessive weight gain and helps people maintain a healthy weight.

Managing chronic health conditions

For example, physical activity can decrease pain for those with osteoarthritis, reduce disease progression for hypertension and type 2 diabetes, reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression, and improve cognition for those with dementia, multiple sclerosis, ADHD, and Parkinson’s disease.

Explore the Second Edition of the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans.

Find more physical activity resources specifically for:

  • Older adults
  • Pregnant women & new moms
  • People with disabilities
  • People with health conditions

Finding Balance: Calories & Physical Activity

By balancing the calories you eat in healthy foods like fruits and vegetables with daily physical activity, you can maintain a healthy weight.

Five servings of fruit and vegetables are all you need to meet dietary guidelines. It’s easier than you think to fill your plate with healthy options. Check out the USDA’s Food Group Gallery for all kinds of helpful information about foods that fall into each group including what counts, the types of food in each group, health benefits & nutrients, and how much you need. Choose a variety of healthy foods, including low-fat and sugar, and remember to watch portion size!

Balance your healthy diet with at least 30-60 minutes of physical activity daily. Adults need at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity every week (anything that gets your heart beating counts). Aim to incorporate muscle-strengthening activities at least two days a week but do what you can– even 5 minutes o physical activity has real health benefits. For more ideas on how to increase physical activity check out our physical activity page.

Take small steps and find the combination of healthy foods and healthy activities that works best for you!

front of healthy weight palm card

back of healthy weight palm card

Download images here.

Portion Size Matters

Here’s a quick guide to food portion sizes using everyday objects.

  • Small Stamp = 1 teaspoon
  • 9-Volt Battery = 1 tablespoon
  • Golf Ball = 2 tablespoons
  • Deck of Cards = 3 ounces
  • Computer Mouse = 1/2 cup
  • Baseball = 1 cup
front of portion control palm card

A “serving” is the amount of food recommended to eat. A “portion” is the amount of food you choose to eat at any one time – which may be more or less than a serving.

Really, what size are your food portions? To see how much you are actually eating, pour your cereal into a regular bowl and then into a measuring cup. Do the same with you glasses, cups and plates.

For more information, visit healthysd.gov.

back of portion control palm card

Download images here.

What is a Healthy Weight for Me?

When you balance your calories with healthy foods like fruits and vegetables and daily physical activity, you can maintain a healthy weight.

front of healthy weight palm card

Body Mass Index or BMI is an inexpensive and fast way to determine your weight category – underweight, normal or healthy weight, overweight and obese. BMI for adults is calculated using a formula with your height and weight. For adults 20 years old and older, the categories are the same for men and women of all body types and ages.

BMI is interpreted differently for children and teens as it needs to be age and sex-specific because the amount of body fat changes with age and the amount of body fat differs between girls and boys.

For more information and ideas on how to live better and grow stronger, go to healthysd.gov.

back of healthy weight palm card

Download images here.

How Much is Enough Exercise

As an older adult, regular physical activity is one of the most important things you can do for your health. It can prevent many of the health problems that seem to come with age. It also helps your muscles grow stronger so you can keep doing your day-to-day activities without becoming dependent on others.

Not doing any physical activity can be bad for you, no matter your age or health condition. Keep in mind, some physical activity is better than none at all. Your health benefits will also increase with the more physical activity that you do.

If you’re 65 years of age or older, are generally fit, and have no limiting health conditions you can follow the guidelines listed here.

A New Look for the Nutrition Label!

Check out this side-by-side comparison of the original label and the NEW label.

New Label - what's different

The new label must be on food packages by July 26, 2018. However, food manufacturers with less than $10 million in annual food sales will have an additional year to comply (July 26, 2019).

So what’s different?

New Label - what's different

The Look:

  • Calories, servings per container, and the serving size will be larger, bolder type to bring attention to this information to help people make informed decisions about the foods they eat.
  • The footnote is changing to better explain what percent Daily Value means. The % Daily Value (%DV) tells you how much a nutrient in a serving of food contributes to a daily diet. 2,000 calories a day is used for general nutrition advice.
  • Calories from Fat is being removed because research shows the type of fat is more important than the amount.

Daily Values:

  • Daily values for nutrients like sodium, dietary fiber and vitamin D are being updated based on newer scientific evidence. The %DV helps consumers understand the nutrition information in the context of a total daily diet.

Trans Fat:

  • Trans fat will be reduced but not eliminated from foods, so it will still be on the label. Artificial Trans fat are not generally recognized as safe, but some Trans fat is present naturally in food from certain animals, such as cows and goats.

Added Sugar:

  • The amount of Added Sugars will be included on the label under Total Carbohydrates as a sub-category of Total Sugar. Added sugar is defined as any sugar that is added during processing and includes a pretty big list of ingredients:

-brown sugar
-high fructose corn syrup
-invert sugar
-maltose sugar

  • People who eat diets with few added sugars are at a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease.
  • No more than 10% of your daily calories should come from added sugar.

Nutrients of Public Health Significance:

  • Vitamin D, potassium, calcium and iron are required to be listed on the label. Vitamins A and C will no longer be required but can be included on a voluntary basis.
  • Manufacturers must declare the actual amount, in addition to %DV of vitamin D, calcium, iron and potassium. They can voluntarily declare the gram amount for other vitamins and minerals.

Duel Column Labeling:

  • For certain products that are larger than a single serving but that could be consumed in one sitting or multiple sittings, manufacturers will have to provide “dual column” labels.  This will show the amount of calories and nutrients “per serving” and “per package”. Examples include a 24 ounce bottle of soda or a pint of ice cream. People will be able to easily understand how many calories and nutrients they are getting if they eat or drink the entire package at one time.

Serving Size and Package Size:

  • By law, serving sizes must be based on amounts of foods and beverages that people are actually eating, not what they should be eating. How much people eat and drink has changed since the previous serving size requirements were published in 1993. For example, a serving of ice cream used to be ½ cup, but is now ⅔ cup. A serving of soda is changing from 8 ounces to 12 ounces.
  • Package size affects what people eat. So for packages that are between one and two servings, such as a 20 ounce soda or a 15-ounce can of soup, the calories and other nutrients will be required to be labeled as one serving because people typically consume it in one sitting.
Serving Size Changes

The new food label is a tool that is easy to use and is helpful in showing the nutrition in the foods we consume.

Sources: U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Changes to the Nutrition Facts Label; FDA Medical Education Resources; and Federal Register Food Labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels.

Food & Drink Guidelines for Childcare Centers, Daycares & Adult Care Homes

Childcare centers, daycares, and adult care homes offering meals through the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) have added a greater variety of vegetables and fruit, more whole grains, and less added sugar and saturated fat to their meals and snacks.

CACFP plays a critical role in supporting the wellness, health, and development of children, older adults, and chronically impaired disabled persons through the provision of nutritious foods. Childcare providers, in particular, have a powerful opportunity to instill healthy habits in young children that serve as a foundation for healthy choices in life.

These food and beverage guidelines help ensure children and adults have access to healthy, balanced meals and snacks throughout the day.

INFANT Meal Pattern

Encourage and support breastfeeding:

  • Providers may receive reimbursement for meals when a breastfeeding mother comes to the daycare center or home and directly breastfeeds her infant; and
  • Only breastmilk and infant formula are served to infants 0 through 5 month olds.

Developmentally appropriate meals:

  • Two age groups, instead of three: 0-5 month olds and 6-11 month olds; and
  • Solid foods are gradually introduced around 6 months of age, as developmentally appropriate.

More nutritious meals:

  • Requires a vegetable or fruit, or both, to be served at snack for infants 6-11 months old;
  • No longer allows juice, cheese food or cheese spread to be served; and
  • Allows ready-to-eat cereals.

CHILD Meal Pattern

Greater variety of vegetables and fruits:

  • The combined fruit and vegetable component is now a separate vegetable component and a separate fruit component; and
  • Juice is limited to once per day.

More whole grains:

  • At least one serving of grains per day must be whole grain-rich;
  • Grain-based desserts no longer count towards the grains component; and
  • Ounce equivalents are used to determine the amount of creditable grains (effective October 1, 2019).

More protein options:

  • Meat and meat alternates may be served in place of the entire grains component at breakfast a maximum of three times per week; and
  • Tofu counts as a meat alternate.

Age appropriate meals:

  • A new age group to address the needs of older children 13 through 18 years old.

Less added sugar:

  • Yogurt must contain no more than 23 grams of sugar per 6 ounces; and
  • Breakfast cereals must contain no more than 6 grams of sugar per dry ounce.

Making every sip count:

  • Unflavored whole milk must be served to 1 year olds;
  • Unflavored low-fat or fat-free milk must be served to children 2-5 years old;
  • Unflavored low-fat, unflavored fat-free, or flavored fat-free milk must be served to children 6 years old and older and adults;
  • Non-dairy milk substitutes that are nutritionally equivalent to milk may be served in place of milk to children or adults with medical or special dietary needs; and
  • Yogurt may be served in place of milk once per day for adults only.

Additional improvements:

  • Extends offer versus serve to at-risk after school programs; and
  • Frying is not allowed as a way of preparing foods on-site.

One-Page Summaries of the New Meal Standards, Effective October 2017

Meal Standards Charts

Source:  USDA Food and Nutrition Service – Child and Adult Care Food Program

Walking Toolkit: Improve Your Health, Well-Being & Quality of Life

Did you know that walking is the #1 physical activity of choice for South Dakotans? We walk for fun. We walk for exercise. We walk for transportation, and we walk to connect – with each other and with our environment. This toolkit is for anyone who wants to walk more and inspire others in their community to Get Movin’!

Learn what walkability is, why it matters and how to create more access to walkable areas. Learn the basics of starting a walking program and find lots of resources to help make walking easy and fun for everyone.

We’re challenging all community leaders, health champions, wellness directors, worksite wellness coordinators, healthcare providers and walking enthusiasts to download, read up and… Walk! Walk! Walk!

2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines are Finally Here

Have you heard? The new Dietary Guidelines have finally been released! What does this mean for you as a health professional? The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans focus on five main points:

  • follow a healthy eating pattern across the lifespan
  • focus on variety, nutrient density, and amount
  • limit calories from added sugars and saturated fats, and reduce sodium intake
  • shift to healthier food and beverage choices
  • support healthy eating patterns for all

The USDA and HHS recommendations reflect data that shows healthy eating and regular exercise can combat obesity and reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and high blood pressure. What’s also new is a shift from focusing on eating individual food groups to healthful eating patterns. This includes a first time ever recommendation to reduce intake of added sugar to a specific amount — 10% of total daily calories.

Healthy eating is one of the most powerful tools we have to reduce the onset of disease. The Dietary Guidelines can help you, your patients, and their families make informed choices about eating. Its important to find a healthy eating pattern that is adaptable to a person’s taste preferences, traditions, culture, and budget.

10 Tips For a Healthy Eating Pattern 


  1. A variety of vegetables: dark green, red, and orange, legumes (beans and peas), starchy, and other vegetables
  2. Fruits, especially whole fruit
  3. Grains, at least half of which are whole grain
  4. Fat-free or low-fat dairy, including milk, yogurt, cheese, and/or fortified soy beverages
  5. A variety of protein foods, including seafood, lean meats and poultry, eggs, legumes (beans and peas), soy products, and nuts and seeds
  6. Oils, including those from plants: canola, corn, olive, peanut, safflower, soybean, and sunflower
  7. Oils also are naturally present in nuts, seeds, seafood, olives, and avocados


  1. Added Sugars – Less than 10% of your daily calories should come from added sugars. Added sugars are sugars and syrups that are added to foods or beverages when they are processed or prepared. This does not include natural sugars found in milk and fruits.
  2. Saturated and Trans Fat – Less than 10% of your daily calories should also come from saturated fats. Foods that are high in saturated fat include butter, whole milk, meats that are not labeled as lean, and tropical oils such as coconut and palm oil. Saturated fats should be replaced with unsaturated fats, such as canola or olive oil.
  3. Sodium (salt) – Adults and children ages 14 years and over should limit sodium to less than 2,300 mg per day, and children younger than 14 years should consume even less. Use the Nutrition Facts label to check for sodium, especially in processed foods like pizza, pasta dishes, sauces, and soups.

Most Americans can benefit from making small shifts in their daily eating habits to improve their health over the long run. Small shifts in food choices—over the course of a week, a day, or even a meal—can make a difference in working toward a healthy eating pattern that works for you.

Remember physical activity! Regular physical activity is one of the most important things individuals can do to improve their health. According to the Department of Health and Human Services’ Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, adults need at least 150 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity each week and should perform muscle-strengthening exercises on two or more days each week. Children ages 6 to 17 years need at least 60 minutes of physical activity per day, including aerobic, muscle-strengthening, and bone-strengthening activities.

Everyone Has A Role…

Whether you are at home, school, your worksite, in your community, or even at a food retail outlet, how will you encourage easy, accessible, and affordable ways to support healthy choices?

        • HOME:  Try out small changes to find what works for you like adding more veggies to favorite dishes, planning meals and cooking at home, and incorporating physical activity into time with family or friends.
        • SCHOOLS: Improve the selection of healthy food choices in cafeterias and vending machines, provide nutrition education programs and school gardens, increase school-based physical activity, and encourage parents and caregivers to promote healthy changes at home.
        • WORKPLACES:  Encourage walking or activity breaks; offer healthy food options in the cafeteria, vending machines, and at staff meetings or functions; and provide health and wellness programs and nutrition counseling.
        • COMMUNITIES: Increase access to affordable, healthy food choices through community gardens, farmers’ markets, shelters, and food banks and create walkable communities by maintaining safe public spaces.
        • FOOD RETAIL OUTLETS: Inform consumers about making healthy changes and provide healthy food choices.

Join the conversations and help spread the word by using hashtags #dietaryguildelines and #MyPlateMyWins on social media.

Source: Health.gov; Top 10 Things You Need to Know About the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans by U.S. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

Fruits & Veggies—More Matters!

The USDA recommends eating 5 – 9 servings of fruits and veggies per day. That might sound like a lot, but it’s easy if you follow MyPlate’s tips:

  • Eat the rainbow! Make sure at least half of your plate is full of fruits and veggies. 
  • Choose fruits and veggies as quick snacks. 
  • Try something new. You can find fresh choices at a farm stand or farmers market. 
  • Vary your veggies. Fresh or frozen? Cooked or raw? Red, orange, or green? Picking different options will keep meals interesting! 
  • You can cook frozen or fresh vegetables in the microwave for a quick side dish. 
  • Opt for whole fruits more than fruit juice. Fresh, frozen, canned, dried, and pureed all count! 
  • Add fruit to your cereal or yogurt at breakfast.

Why are fruits and veggies important to eat?

  • Low in calories—naturally!
  • May reduce disease risk, including heart disease, high blood pressure, and some cancers.
  • Rich in vitamins and minerals that help you feel healthy and energized.

Click on each nutrient to see a list of fruits & veggies that are “high” and “good” sources. Remember—beans and peas count as a vegetable, too!

  • Calcium: Calcium is essential for healthy bones and teeth. It is also needed for normal functioning of muscles, nerves, and some glands.
  • Fiber: Diets rich in dietary fiber have been shown to have a number of beneficial effects, including decreased risk of coronary heart disease.
  • Folate: Healthful diets with adequate folate may reduce a woman’s risk of having a child with a brain or spinal cord defect.
  • Iron: Needed for healthy blood and normal functioning of all cells.
  • Magnesium: Magnesium is necessary for healthy bones and is involved with more than 300 enzymes in your body! Low levels may result in muscle cramps and high blood pressure.
  • Potassium: Diets rich in potassium may help to maintain a healthy blood pressure.
  • Vitamin A: Keeps eyes and skin healthy and helps protect against infections.
  • Vitamin C: Helps heal cuts and wounds and keeps teeth and gums healthy.

What fruits and veggies are in season right now?

Choosing fruits and vegetables in season is a great way to stretch your food dollars. Learn more about seasonal fruits and vegetables:

Unsure how to cut up or use that fruit and vegetable you just bought?

Go to CookSmarts and watch videos that show you how to cut up and prepare most fruits and vegetables!

And remember 2 things…

1.) Fill half your plate with fruits & veggies at every meal and be sure to include healthy snacks when you get the munchies. For a fun way to teach kids (and coworkers) about healthy snacks—check out the Munch Code!

2.) All forms—fresh, frozen, canned, dried and 100% juice—count toward your daily intake.

Sources:  SD Harvest of the Month, CookSmarts, and South Dakota Department of Health Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS)

Physical Activity Guidelines: Fall into Fitness

Many consider Fall one of the most beautiful times of the year. Changes in the natural outdoor colors, the arrival of cool weather, and the sight of farmers in the field all make this season a gorgeous time of year. Fall offers the opportunity for engagement in a number of outdoor activities, in a cool and scenic atmosphere. For those who are looking to be more active, this beautiful fall weather can serve as a strong motivational factor and assist with the development of a lifelong active lifestyle.

The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommend adults engage in 150 minutes of moderate physical activity or 75 minutes of vigorous physical activity, or an equivalent combination of both each week. For instance, an adult can meet this guideline by walking 30 minutes (15 minutes in the morning & 15 minutes in the evening) 5 times a week. In addition to getting some aerobic exercise, adults should strive to incorporate 2 or more days of muscle-strengthening activity each week. Examples of muscle-strengthening activities include weight lifting, push-ups, sit-ups, yoga, or resistance band exercises. Activity only needs to be performed in bouts of 10 minutes or more, increasing ease for very busy individuals to meet the recommendations!

If you feel you are too busy to incorporate activity into your normal routine, try spreading your activity out during the week or making it intrinsic to your normal daily routine. The recommended 150 minutes can be accumulated throughout all 7 days of the week. Identify available time slots by monitoring your normal daily routine for one week and insert 10-15 minute bouts of activity where time is available. For example, try a 10-minute walk in the morning, one over lunch, and a 10-minute bike ride in the evening to enjoy the beautiful fall weather. Choose activities that require minimal time, such as jogging, walking, or going up and down stairs. If that doesn’t work and you can’t get outside, try cleaning your house at a moderate to vigorous intensity for 25 minutes each day (i.e. sweeping, vacuuming, dusting, mopping).

Physical activity does not have to be another thing on your “to-do list”, you can sneak activity into things you are already doing. Walk or bike to work or nearby facilities, play with your kids outside, do some squats and heel raises while checking cattle or cooking, exercise while you watch television, walk the dog or lift small hand weights while you read. Incorporating physical activity into your day can be easy; it might just take a little creativity. South Dakota offers trails and parks across the state, which is a pleasing sight to the eye during fall.

Being physically active is one of the most important steps that Americans of all ages can take to improve their health.

Why Fruits and Vegetables Matter for Men

Compared to people who eat only small amounts of fruits and vegetables, those who eat more – as part of a healthful diet — are more likely to reduce their risk of chronic diseases. Depending on age and level of physical activity, men should eat between 2 to 2 1/2 cups of fruit and 2 1/2 to 4 cups of vegetables every day. Eating more fruits and vegetables is a smart and easy way to improve your health.

Fill up, not out
Eating fruits and vegetables instead of high-fat foods may make it easier to control your weight. You may also feel full on fewer calories. That’s because most fruit and vegetables are lower in calories and higher in fiber than other foods.

To get a healthy variety, think color. Eating fruits and vegetables of different colors gives your body a wide range of valuable nutrients, like fiber, folate, potassium, and vitamins A and C. Some examples include green spinach, orange sweet potatoes, black beans, yellow corn, purple plums, red watermelon, or white onions. For more variety, try new fruits and vegetables regularly.

Download the PDF to find out how eating fruits and vegetables can help improve your health.

Target Heart Rate

When talking or learning about exercise, you often hear the word “intensity”. Intensity refers to how hard a person works to do a select activity. The two most often examined intensities in exercise are moderate and vigorous intensity. For many individuals, determining if you are working at a moderate or vigorous intensity may be tricky. The body’s physiological response to exercise is a steady increase in activity with an increased intensity of activity. Thus, a great way to estimate your relative exercise intensity is through your heart rate and prediction of your target heart rate zone (THRZ).

Percentage of maximal heart rate (MHR) is based on simple exercise physiology, which predicts an individual’s MHR from the age based equation: 220 – age. For example, the MHR for a 30 year old individual would be equal to 220-30 = 190. Target Heart Rate, also known as percentage of Maximal Heart Rate Reserve, is an aerobic method, also based on the MHR prediction, used to estimate an individual’s THRZ. THRZ is the intensity range that will produce training effects on the heart if maintained for a sufficient length of time (i.e. 20-30 minutes). Typical THRZ for a moderate activity is 40%-59% of MHR, and for a vigorous activity, 60%-84%. For healthy individuals, the American Heart Association recommends individuals set their THRZ between 50%-85% of their MHR2. Individuals who are new to exercise, previously sedentary, rehabilitating or have medical problems should aim for a lower THRZ and consult with their physician or an exercise professional before starting exercise.

Selecting Your THRZ

  • 80%-90% of MHR – improve performance, high intensity exercise (no medical problems)
  • 70%-85% of MHR – established aerobic exercisers, currently active most days of the week
  • 60%-75% of MHR – intermediate level exercisers
  • 50%- 60% MHR – previously sedentary, medical problems, new to exercise

If you are looking to exercise within your THRZ, below is a sample calculation for an established 30 year old exerciser aiming for a THR Zone of 70% – 85%:

  • MHR = 220 – 30 years old = 190
  • Upper Limit (85%) = MHR x .85 = 190 x .85 = 162 beats/min
  • Lower Limit (70%)= MHR x .70 = 190 x .70 = 133 beats/min
  • Target HR Zone: Lower Limit beats/min to Upper Limit beats/min (133 beats/min to 162 beats/min)

If you are new to exercise, during the first few weeks aim for the lower part of your THRZ. Gradually aim for a higher training percentage of your THRZ. A great way to monitor your heart rate during exercise is with a heart rate monitor. There are many forms and styles available for purchase. The American College of Sports Medicine offers a great resource for Selecting and Effectively Using a Heart Rate Monitor.

Source: SDSU Extension; Target Heart Rate by Nikki Porsch

Monitoring Exercise Intensity Using Your Heart Rate

Why Do You Need to Monitor Your Heart Rate?

You’re huffing and puffing through another aerobic workout, wondering if you’re really doing yourself any good. Are you working too hard or not hard enough?

You look around. The person next to you has barely broken a sweat while the one in front is drenched from head to toe. Well, sweat may not be the best indicator of exercise intensity. For that, we need to look to our hearts.

Heart rates, to be exact. When you exercise, your heart beats faster to meet the demand for more blood and oxygen by the muscles of the body. The more intense the activity, the faster your heart will beat. Therefore, monitoring your heart rate during exercise can be an excellent way to monitor exercise intensity.

For the majority of aerobic enthusiasts, there is a range of exercise intensities that is described as safe and effective for promoting cardiovascular benefits. To determine what range is best for you, you’ll need to be familiar with a few terms.

  1. Maximal heart rate: This number is related to your age. As we grow older, our hearts start to beat a little more slowly. To estimate your maximal heart rate, simply subtract your age from the number 220.
  2. Target heart-rate zone: This is the number of beats per minute (bpm) at which your heart should be beating during aerobic exercise. For most healthy individuals, this range is 50 to 80 percent of your maximal heart rate. So, if your maximal heart rate is 180 bpm, the low end of the range (50 percent) would be 90 bpm, and the high end of the range (80 percent) would be 144 bpm.

What Does the Recommended Heart-Rate Range Mean?

Now that you’ve determined your target heart-rate zone, you need to know how to put that information to good use. These numbers serve as a guideline – an indicator of how hard you should be exercising.

Those just beginning an aerobic program should probably aim for the low end of the zone and pick up the intensity as they become more comfortable with their workouts. Those who are more fit, or are training for competitive events, may want to aim for the higher end of the zone.

Keep in mind that the target heart-rate zone is recommended for individuals without any health problems. Additionally, individuals taking medication that alter the heart rate should consult their physician for recommended exercise intensity.

Where to Monitor?

There are a number of ”sites” used to monitor the pulse rate. Two convenient sites to use are the radial pulse at the base of the thumb of either hand, or the carotid pulse at the side of the neck.

Accurate pulse-count assessment is crucial when monitoring exercise intensity. By using the first two fingers of one hand and locating the artery, a pulse rate can be easily determined.

Immediately after exercise, isolate your pulse and count the number of beats in a 10-second period. To determine the heart rate in beats per minute, multiply the number of beats per 10 seconds by six. For instance, if a 10-second pulse count were 20, then the heart rate would be 120 bpm.

A Final Word About Heart-Rate Monitoring

Remember, your estimated target heart-rate zone is just that – an estimate. If you feel like you are exercising too hard, you probably are. The best advice is to reduce your intensity and find a heart-rate range that works for you.

Source: Ace Fitness; Monitoring Exercise Intensity Using Heart Rate